Air density: The moisture in the air
Breakwater: A manmade structure that goes out from the shore into the water.
Crest: A wave's highest point.
Drift bottle: A bottle that is launched into the ocean in order to study currents. The finder returns the drift bottle and provides information on the date and location of its discovery.
Ebb: An outgoing tide.
Estuary: This body of water connects the ocean to one or more rivers and streams. At the river's wide mouth, fresh water empties into the salty ocean.
Fetch: A large distance of open water.
Fossil fuels: Fuels, such as coal and oil, created from the remains of million-year-old plants and animals.
Global warming: An increase in the temperature that happens when there is a large amount of heat-trapping greenhouse gases.
Greenhouse effect: Natural process of the sun's energy entering the earth's atmosphere. A portion is returned back to space while another portion is reflected back to earth, so heat is trapped.
Greenhouse gases: Earth's atmospheric gases including carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and water vapour, which undergo the greenhouse effect.
High tide: When the water level is highest due to the moon's pull.
Hurricane: A towering column of fast moving air that is formed when a cold Arctic air mass moves south and meets a warm Tropical air mass moving north.
Lake: A large, still body of water without an outlet.
Mouth: The lower end of a river.
Neap tide: The lowest tides. They happen when the sun and moon are at right angles of one another.
Nor'easter: A storm that forms when two dissimilar air masses meet.
Offshore wind: Wind that blows away from the coast.
River: A large, moving stream that starts at a high point and ends at a mouth.
Rogue wave: A large, spontaneous wave that occurs far from the shoreline.
Spring tide: The highest tides. They occur when the moon and sun are lined up with one another and with the earth.
Surface drifter: A device used to measure the direction of the currents. A satellite tracks the locations of the surface drifter.
Swell: A smooth, more stable wave.
Tide: The rise and fall of the ocean water.
Tornado at sea: When a column of water is dragged upwards from the sea's surface and combines with condensed water in moist air.
Trough: The lowest point of a wave.
Tsunami: A big wave with destructive power, moving at a fast speed and a large height.
Tube: The tunnel formed by a breaking wave.
Water cycle: The natural recycling of water. The ocean evaporates into the air and comes back down to the earth as rain and snow.
Waterway: A connector between bodies of water.